# Weather: Extreme Physical Change

For the final lesson of Chapter 12 (and Unit 3!), students applied their understanding of temperature and pressure to the extreme weather example of hurricanes.  We began class with a video describing how hurricanes form:

After the video, we briefly reviewed the lesson objectives in the Lesson 67 PowerPoint.  Students then received a packet containing the Lesson 67 Worksheet, a handout showing the anatomy of a hurricane, a list of extreme weather occurrences from 2005, and a graph of global temperature changes from 1880-2012.  For homework, students were assigned textbook questions 1 and 4.

# Weather: Ideal Gas Law

After several lessons learning about the component parts and relationships mathematically connecting pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles, the Ideal Gas Law was revealed.  We worked through the Lesson 64 worksheet and then watched a Crash Course video on the Ideal Gas Law:

After the video, we worked through Lesson 65 textbook problems 3 and 5.  The notes from the white board are shown below.  The Lesson 65 PowerPoint and Lesson 65 Worksheet are available for students who would like to see them.  We did not use either today in class, and the Lesson 65 Worksheet was not assigned.

# Weather: Density, Temperature, and Fronts

In the final lesson of Chapter 10, students focused their learning of temperature and volume back on the concept of weather as it relates to warm and cold fronts and the formation of clouds.  We worked through the ChemCatalyst in the Lesson 55 PowerPoint and then watched a clip of Kenvin Delaney, Jimmy Fallon, and Lucy Liu experiment with matter of different densities:

Students then worked through the Lesson 55 Worksheet which calls for them to reference the Weather Variables worksheet from Lesson 49.  For homework, students were assigned textbook questions 1, 3, 4, and 5.

# Weather: Charles’s Law

We formally connected observations about the relationship between temperature and volume by introducing Charles’s Law.  The Lesson 54 PowerPoint includes the definition of Charles’s Law and introduces k, the proportionality constant.  We worked through the ChemCatalyst and watched a few minutes of a YouTube video showing a lava lamp in action:

We sketched out a before/during/after model of how a lava lamp works and the white board notes are shown below.  Students then practiced working through Charles’s Law by completing the Lesson 54 Worksheet.  For homework, students were assigned textbook questions 1 and 7 (or Notes).

# Weather: Thermometers

We jumped into the short week with a lab designed to help students understand the relationship between temperature and pressure.  The Lesson 52 Worksheet has two parts, and we conducted the lab for part 2.  We adjusted the lab procedure as follows:

1. Bring 200 mL of water to 80 degrees Celsius, measuring temperature with a digital thermometer.
2. Invert a 10 mL graduated cylinder and place in the heated water for 3 minutes.
3. Quickly and carefully move the graduated cylinder from the heated water into 100 mL of room temperature water (colored blue with 2 drops of food coloring) and quickly add ice to chill the water.
4. Record observations throughout the experiment.

Several groups had difficulty observing the intended outcome, so I conducted a quick demonstration toward the end of class and we discussed why the results occurred.  The picture below shows cold water entering the graduated cylinder and rising above the water line.

Students successfully reasoned that at the beginning of the experiment, the graduated cylinder contains room temperature air.  When placed in the heated water, the steam (evaporated water molecules) displace the room temperature air in the graduated cylinder, as evidenced by the bubbles observed leaving the graduated cylinder.  When the steam-filled graduated cylinder was transferred to the cold water, the decrease in temperature caused the steam to condense back into liquid form, and the volume of space occupied by the liquid water decreased.  As a result, cold water was drawn into the graduated cylinder.  The concepts of pressure and vacuum were introduced by students looking to explain further, and those concepts will be introduced in upcoming lessons.  For reference, the Lesson 52 PowerPoint is attached.  For homework, students should complete textbook questions 5-9 or take notes on the lesson.